You may wonder how to keep the data stored in a secure manner if it has to remain there for decades or centuries. Different types of storage media have their strengths and weaknesses, including durability, compatibility, security and costs. This blog post compares a few choices and lists their advantages and disadvantages in different ways.
Long-term archival backup media refers to a set of technologies which are widely accepted and adopted for saving long-term storable data. The medium of choice is generally selected due to its strength and dependability as well as because it is compatible with later systems. It also protects the information so that it can’t be after the advance of new technology. Magnetic tape, Optical discs (including DVD or Blue Ray), and special Archival HDD are examples of common long-term archival backup for data storage standards.
A tape drive is an auxiliary data device that stores and retrieves information by relying on magneto-optic media – magnetic tape. It is widely applied in backup and archive cases. Tape drives provide an economical, dependable approach for archiving data over time.
Tape drives are utilized in backup functions by various organizations and individuals ranging from business enterprises, governments, educational establishments, and some personal users. Considerations in the selection of tape drives as a medium for backup are dictated by factors such as the volume of information to store, the time period for which it should be retained, and if there is an offline or portable option.
Tape drives have several advantages, such as:
- High capacity: One tape cartridge can contain about 30TB/uncompressed or around 120TB/compressed.
- Low cost: Compared to other storage media, tape cartridges are relatively cheap, costing approximately $0.01 per GB.
- Long lifespan: If well preserved in an appropriately controlled environment, tape cartridges can last for about thirty years and above.
- Energy efficiency: A tape drive uses less energy than a hard disk or solid-state disk because it does not rotate unless it is involved in reading and writing.
Tape drives also have some drawbacks, such as:
- **Slow access: Therefore, sequentially operated tape drives need to rewind or fast forward the tapes in order to reach the relevant data. This duration can be as short as a few minutes or long enough to last for several hours depending on the tape size.
- Compatibility issues: The tape drive employs different standards and formats incompatible with one another and/or modern systems. To illustrate, LTO (linear tape-open) is a popularly known tape format composed of various versions that differ, including the capacity and capabilities. In the case of old tapes, you may have to upgrade your tape drive or get a converter.
- Maintenance requirements: Cleaning and calibration of tape drives are necessary for the best possible quality and faultless operation. Likewise, tape cartridges must be sheltered from moisture and subjected to no degrading conditions such as heat or dust.
Long-term storage can be done on optical disks or other media like discs as well. A single-sided plastic disc coated with the reflective material in optical discs reads the data using a laser. Other examples of such optic discs are M-discs, CD-ROMs, DVD-ROMs, and Blu-ray ones.
Optical discs have some advantages, such as:
- Wide compatibility: Most devices and programs support optical discs, which makes the latter very popular. This format may be read with minimum effort using many types of devices that are on hand without having to employ special drivers or convertors.
- High durability: Optical discs avoid the influence of magnetic fields, humidity, temperature and physical shocks, which have a damaging effect on other storages. […] Scratches and fingerprints are partially resistant to them too.
- Long lifespan: If correctly stored, optical discs can last for several centuries or even hundreds of years. This special brand of optical disc is called M-DISCs, which boast an inorganic data layer that cannot deteriorate as a result of exposure to ultraviolet light or water.
However, optical discs also have some drawbacks, such as:
- Low capacity: Other media have more storage space than optical discs. One CD-ROM stores up to 700MB, DVD-ROM keeps 4.7GB, Blu-ray 25GB, and M-disc keeps 100 GB.
- High cost: Tape cartridges have lower prices than optical discs in the matter of storing information for a gigabyte (GB). OneGB discs cost an average of three dollars (M-DISCs).
- Quality issues: Disc rot is the erosion of chemicals on optical discs that could peel off the reflective layer after a while. It may result in errors or lost data. Poor manufacture quality, overexposure to light or heat, bad handling and storage conditions may cause disc rot to develop more quickly and severely.
Long-term storage can be done through the use of a hard disk or an SSD.# They employ magnetic or electrical parts to record information on spinning disks or chip memories that are called hard drives and SSDs. The common daily uses of hard drives or SSDs include computations as well as storing various materials.
Hard disks have some advantages for long-term usage, such as:
- Fast access: A hard drive or SSD has a random access mode of operation which allows it to readily pick out and retrieve any information stored in the media.
- High performance: Fast data transfer and processing are possible due to high speeds of read and write in hard drives /SSD. They are also capable of supporting concurrent operations and do not get slowed down by them.
- Large capacity: Other media have lower storage capacities than hard drives and SSDs. One hard drive comes up with 20 TB, while one SSD is 8TB.
However, hard drives and SSDs also have some drawbacks, such as:
- Short lifespan: The hard drive as well as the SSD, can last for a specific period determined by the manner in which they are utilized as well as by wear and tear. Mechanical failures may arise from hard drive errors like head crashes, bad sectors, or motor faults. Flash memory degrades with time, and a cell loses its capacitance after repeated writing to it in SSDs. They are considered by most people to have lifespans of between five and ten years, although this will vary by issue.
- High power consumption: Tape-driven data and optical discs consume less power because hard drives and drives and SSDs have to spin and refresh their data continuously. It could also add to the costs related to power as well as the detrimental effect posed on the environment in preserving data.
- Vulnerability to damage: Physical shocks, vibrations, magnetism, heat, humidity and dust may compromise a hard drive or an SSD’s components or data. There has to be protection against hacking and viruses that could compromise a site’s safety and dependability.
It is difficult to identify any single best medium for the storage of long-term archival backup data in response to the question, “What is the standard medium for long-term archival storage of backup data?” But each choice has advantages and disadvantages depending on what you need or want.
This is an illustration of what factors you may have to look into during analysis, such as the amount of data one requires to store, how frequently one wants to access it, budgets allocated for the course and also security, durability and so forth.
In addition, it may be necessary to integrate various media types or have multiple versions or backups of your data in order to guarantee its preservation and accessibility in the future.